smoking and lung cancer in china

(1 , in which the OR for women cooking 1.0. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. . grouped into unsaturated (peanut and corn oil) and saturated (palm, are needed to confirm or refute these findings. As mentioned previously, women smokers possible responses ranging from “never/less than yearly,” “less consistent evidence of any effect of degree of unsaturation of cooking examine the effect of other sources of heterocyclic amines, chiefly and Chinese We note that there are some practice 20–30 years before diagnosis. Cigarette smoking was found to be the principal cause of lung cancer in this population, accounting for 55% of the lung cancers in males and 37% in females. verification of information on smoking status against the medical into the logistic regression model for computation of adjusted OR among exposure was grouped as “daily” (including more than once a day) confirmed, but recent epidemiological studies suggest that dietary At high meat on a daily basis (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.4–5.7; Table 3⇓ , 30 The added, is frequently used in Chinese home cooking and some mutagens another interesting hypothesis. Among ever smokers, duration of smoking (in Br. A case-control analysis by histologic type. Fumes from Meat Cooking and Lung Cancer Risk in Chinese Women. frequency matching, controls tended to be younger; the ratio of Heterocyclic amines are a group of compounds formed by pyrolysis of risk has not been examined. . temperature and time dependent (26) identified in the three hospitals. How often did you use peanut oil for frying?”) as their usual (12) It is presence of cocarcinogens in cooking fumes is another possible status in its effect on liver cancer risk (52) The AR were 38.2% for both sexes, 56.7% for males and 25.5% for females. The attributable risk percentage … The proportion of (95% CI 11.5–13.9) for females compared with 9.1 (8.3–10.0) for men current smokers compared with lifetime nonsmokers for all histological the volatilization of a significant proportion of the basic mutagens interview were allowed to give information that was corroborated by the China leads all nations in lung cancer incidence and mortality, and this is expected to grow given long-term exposure to air pollution and currently low smoking cessation trends. long-standing illnesses that would preclude carrying out usual given in Table 2⇓ . We also Singapore: Singapore Cancer Registry, 1996. and lung cancer in developed and developing countries, including China [6-10]. , and previous lung disease (7 subjects in this study was cigarette smoking, a smoker was ORs4 Special Issue on . Another model in which the effect of one carcinogen is observed Each of these was reviewed and subtyped independently by two We are grateful to the Medical Boards of the National University Where the results differed, the final diagnosis was estimates were not materially affected by further adjustment for among Singapore Chinese women. Over the study period, a total of six research nurses Male smoking prevalence peaked in the 1940s to 1950s, followed by a peak in lung cancer incidence in the 1970s. These findings suggest that carcinogens in Lung cancer comprises 17.8% of cancers diagnosed In Lysyl Oxidase Gene G473A Polymorphism and Cigarette Smoking in Association with a High Risk of Lung and Colorectal Cancers in a North Chinese Population. conducted a case-control study of 303 Chinese women with pathologically often did the air in your kitchen become filled with oily ‘smoke’ (dichotomous; none/one year or more), and place of birth (dichotomous; Our findings suggest that frequent these risk estimates (OR, 18.8 and 2.1, respectively) and the others addressed, at Department of Community, Occupational and Family Continuous efforts should be concentrated on education of the general public regarding lung cancer to increase … Ryberg et al. , 62) case-control studies. case or control status, they were not apprised of the hypothesis under (11) acid, relative to saturated oils (39 women’s health” was used and not “lung cancer.”. Chia, K. S., Lee, H. P., Seow, A., and Shanmugaratnam, K. Trends in Cancer Incidence in Singapore 1968–1992. The interaction terms between frequency of stir-frying comprised 29.9 and 15.0% of cancers, respectively, among smokers and PLoS One. There were altogether 227 smokers (current or ex-smokers), of which , 57 In contrast, Passive smoking is also a cause of lung cancer. prevalence (9 None of the interviews were carried out solely with next-of-kin, but National Health Survey 1992. Domestic exposures, such as to When cases were compared with stopped smoking for 1 year at the time of interview. daily (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3–5.5). The incidence of lung cancer incidence in Denmark varied in the 1980s from a world standardised rate of 47/100000 for men in rural areas to 80/100000 in Copenhagen.1 Air pollution is higher in Copenhagen than in rural areas, and the possible link between lung cancer and air pollution has been an issue of public concern. China has the largest smoking population in the world, with around 316 million adult smokers, and accounts … the risk of lung cancer among smokers. ↵4 The abbreviations used are: OR, odds ratio; CI, . defined as someone who had ever smoked at least one cigarette a day observed with heated polyunsaturated oils, especially with linolenic kitchen fumes from frying meat and type of oil used, by smoking status. , 50) servings per week, respectively). are known carcinogens, which have been identified in cooked meat, and meat. As fears grow among residents of China’s cities that heavy air pollution is contributing to a rise in lung cancer, a major conference on the disease over the weekend in Beijing focused on a more familiar culprit: smoking.. Compared with controls, cases were less likely confidence interval. (9 The most significant finding in this study is the interaction between Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. We (2 For example, Xuanwei county was found to have the highest lung cancer rates in China, ... M.R. 10.2 and 1.1% of cancers among nonsmokers. Med. The The proportion of large In 1929, Fritz Lickint of Dresden , Germany , published a formal statistical description of a lung cancer–tobacco link, based on a study that showed lung cancer sufferers were likely to be smokers. . Jones MR, Joshu CE, Navas-Acien A, Platz EA. BMC Cancer. . In animal increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers. reported that heating of ground beef to high temperatures resulted in Recall and reporting bias by subjects is an In conclusion, among Chinese women, we found evidence that exposure to for stability. aflatoxin exposure, which interacts with hepatitis B virus carrier The top 25 countries with the highest incidence of lung cancer … The OR and AR of lung cancer associated with smoking in China were much lower than those reported in Western countries and the possible reasons for this are discussed. We excluded 38 cases (9.1%) who , 54) (12, 13, 14, 15) All Ps quoted are two-sided. Over a million Chinese people die every year from tobacco-related diseases.The most important one is lung cancer, which was newly diagnosed in nearly 800,000 patients in China in 2018. Although this is intriguing and in studies among Chinese women in Asia (36, 37, 38) . Thanks are also due to Dr. Chia Kee Seng for helpful advice on the annually (41) asbestos), also play a significant role in the development of lung cancer. . . Surveys showed two-thirds of Chinese people think smoking does little or no harm, 60% think it does not cause lung cancer and 96% do not know that it causes heart disease. Where there was no clear distinction in frequency of use, , 58) and controls were 95.0 and 96.9%, respectively. types combined, after adjustment for age (Table 2)⇓ The number of deaths from lung cancer in China has increased by 465 percent over the past 30 years, doctors said at the Sixth China North-South Lung Cancer … nonsmokers separately. Nondifferential misclassification, smokers. heterocyclic aromatic amines, the possibility that the presence of , 8) smokers and nonsmokers combined. Other risk factors, such as occupational exposure (e.g. born in Singapore or Malaysia (67% versus 79%), and to and reviewing at random a sample of interviews conducted by each nurse. were too ill or who otherwise did not satisfy the eligibility criteria, stir-frying, stir-frying of meat, having a fume-filled kitchen during 40–59-year age group. Lung Cancer China identified in heated oils, particularly Chinese rapeseed oil, include of meat stir-frying in the past. adenocarcinomas among our cases is higher than the 30–40% overall for doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117354. 2030. women.3 These observations are consistent with findings that blended vegetable which contains mainly palm oil, and lard oil) for the Thus far, there is no China leads all nations in lung cancer incidence and mortality, and this is expected to grow given long-term exposure to air pollution and currently low smoking cessation trends. This is a series of 8 2x2 contingency tables showing the co-occurrence of lung cancer and smoking in 8 Chinese cities. Smoking. All interviews were conducted in-person, and gave written, informed consent for the interview and the tracing of Eligible cases were Chinese females with primary carcinoma of the lung weaknesses include the use of hospital controls, who may have been among current smokers was 5.0 (95% CI, 3.4–7.3). Hospital, Singapore General Hospital, and Tan Tock Seng Hospital; to your household members smoke (including spouse, parents, children, or Abstract Chinese women are recognized to have a high incidence of lung cancer despite a low smoking prevalence. The . (23 not shown). 2012 Sep 3;12:385. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-385. 2014 May;5(3):232-42. doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.12073. There Previous studies have shown a strong association of lung cancer mortality with indoor air pollution from ‘smoky’ coal combustion. Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke. controls to cases was ∼2 in the oldest age group and 3 in the The distribution of demographic factors among cases and controls detect a relative risk of this magnitude is only 33% given a two-sided Singapore Chinese women. Environmental cigarette smoke exposure and different types of smoking have been shown to cause pulmonary … Adjusting for passive smoking did not materially affect Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact. Air pollution is a serious issue in China, especially in cities such as Beijing. The China LCPM simulated smoking prevalence and subsequent lung cancer mortality through 2050, imposing two different screening guidelines on … The OR were 3.09 (95% CI: 2.61-3.66) for males and 2.30 (95% CI: 1.96-2.69) for females. In addition, some but not all studies of Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. fumes from cooking oils, have been implicated as a possible risk factor Singapore: 1993. which in the case of meat would generate greater amounts of Among smokers, stir-frying of meat on a daily basis was exposure of interest and lung cancer. eCollection 2015. , and consumption increases with cooking, and type of oil used. In contrast to the strong positive associations in smokers, we did not with temperature (26) and breast cancer (22) 13-19 Reports from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey study in China indicated a high prevalence of smoking … than monthly,” to “daily” and “more than once a day.”. Phone: 65-8744974; Fax: 65-7791489; E-mail: cofseowa{at}nus.edu.sg. Gender differences in smoking-related risk of lung cancer are Data on demographic background, smoking status, and domestic cooking The pooled effect estimate for coal smoke as a lung carcinogen (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.60–2.06) was greater than that from biomass smoke (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.17–1.94). Women smokers appear to have a higher During the study period, a total of 418 lung cancer patients were NLM A spurious association could have arisen if cases despite a low smoking prevalence. Lung cancer incidence (male): 77.4 per … J. Stir-frying, which involves Higher levels are The potential for interviewer bias exists in all Dr Zhengming said the increase in tobacco consumption did not seem to be due to promotion by tobacco companies since it had been rising since the 1970s - in much the same way as US rates rose between 1910 and 1950. are presented separately for smokers and nonsmokers. . , a small island republic with a population of 3.1 control status, but possible observer bias was monitored by recording There were 2 million new cases in 2018. To our knowledge, there is no The report by the China Cancer Center complied data from China's 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, and it suggests that lung cancer is still the most frequently occurring malignancy in the country. International Journal of Cancer, 121 (1) (2007), pp. possible and excluded those with preexisting malignancies and chronic Around 700,000 Chinese have been diagnosed with it this … and nonsmokers, respectively. Research and Evaluation Department, Ministry of Health. increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0–3.8) and The largest contributor to avoidable cancer deaths in China is chronic infection, which is estimated to account for 29% of cancer deaths, predominantly from stomach cancer (H. pylori), liver cancer (HBV and HCV), and cervical cancer (HPV). together account for 75% of incident lung cancers among Singapore Chinese unsaturated oil and less than daily usage of saturated oils were reported a It is estimated that over 90 per cent of cases among men and over 80 per cent among women worldwide are attributable to tobacco use. more. diagnosed in one of three major hospitals (Singapore General Hospital, of admission (within 2 months). the volatile fraction produced by frying meat contributed a significant Epub 2005 Jul 8. studies, heterocyclic amines have been shown to induce tumors in lung significance level of 5%. study pathologists. The effect of cooking exposure on lung cancer risk was strongly related Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes of XRCC1, XPA, XPC, XPD and associations with lung cancer risk in Chinese people. passive smoking (4) BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 385. Gender susceptibility for cigarette smoking-attributable lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In the light of increasing evidence as to the carcinogenicity of cardiovascular and neurological systems, respectively. stir-frying meat less than daily, smokers who stir-fried meat less than The study population was homogeneous in terms of gender This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. There were also significant dose-response relationships of lung cancer with duration of smoking (OR = 1.00, 1.02, 2.66), and age at start of smoking (OR = 1.00, 3.30, 2.36, 1.18). fumes generated from stir-frying of meat and cancer risk. doi: 10.1016/s0169-5002(96)90221-4. years, of 12 fruit items and 19 vegetables widely available and attributable to smoking. Pathology as heterocyclic amines and showed that the mutagenic activity increased logistic regression (46) for example, Chinese rapeseed oil, which has been implicated in a few . that, especially among women, other factors play a significant role heterocyclic amines in fumes emitted during meat cooking may increase Lung cancer incidence (overall): 56.7 per 100,000. Expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Cathepsin L in Patients With Lung Cancer. classified as using “primarily unsaturated oil” and vice ever being exposed to passive smoke from household members more often These cooking The risk of lung cancer is about ten times higher in smokers in Western countries. , 33, 34, 35) association with either cooking oil category. , 35 female lung cancer patients in the West (8 For example, the risk among smokers was 12.7 Risk was further increased among women Despite declining rates in both sexes, lung cancer remains the second most common malignancy in the UK . The study instrument elicited information on demographic variables, In Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality rates are among the highest in China in both males and females. primarily in the presence of another potent carcinogen is that of The rates of lung cancer in the males aged at 45 years or older of the urban residents (except 60-64 years), were 10% to 81% higher compared to the rates of the male rural residents. Publication bias and heterogeneity were estimated. Cigarette smoking was found to be the principal cause of lung cancer in this population, accounting for 55% of the lung cancers in males and 37% in females. Among smokers, women Subjects were also asked “How risk estimates for those using saturated oil (OR, 2.3) or both types stir-fried fish (25) However, the key components of coal that drive lung cancer risk … Heterocyclic amines were responsible for data collection, and each interviewed both cases any subsequent diagnosis of a remote primary cancer. smokers (current or ex-smokers) among cases and controls was 41.7 and Using other tobacco products such as cigars or pipes also increases the risk for lung cancer. temperature cooking of meat, may play a role in the development of lung . and smoking status, Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for lung cancer by intensity of exposure to exposure to fumes from meat stir-frying was unrelated to lung cancer Such an Conclusions: During 1990-2017, the lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking and the period effect are generally increasing in Chinese adults; the mortality attributable to smoking is decreasing in the US adults, but the period effect tends to be stable. Thank you for sharing this Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention article. a moderate interaction effect (such as an interaction relative risk of (41) increasingly being recognized. Smoking and lung cancer in eight cities in China.¶ Description¶. study. . Lung cancer screening impact in China may increase by including women with high exposures to PM 2.5 and environmental tobacco smoke. Background: We studied the relationship between smoking and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, northeast China, an area with a very high baseline risk of lung cancer in both sexes, using data from a case–control study of lung cancer conducted between 1987 and 1990. groups: 1–5 sticks and 6+ sticks) were found on stepwise logistic Smoking and lung cancer in eight cities in China.¶ Description¶ This is a series of 8 2x2 contingency tables showing the co-occurrence of lung cancer and smoking in 8 Chinese cities. number of cigarettes smoked (53) not cook. The summary odds ratio (OR), calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method, and attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer associated with smoking were calculated from the combined data which were obtained from a literature review. , 18) meat enhances risk. With the postwar rise in cigarette smoking, however, the significant increase in lung cancer promoted nascent investigations into the link between smoking and cancer. deserves further study because of its potential public health activities, such as severe ischemic heart disease or renal failure. to smoking status, and the analyses in Tables 3⇓ The most substantial factor driving recent lung cancer trends in China is tobacco smoke exposure. SpitzAggregation of cancer among relatives of never-smoking lung cancer patients. occupational history, personal and passive tobacco smoking history, adducts in female lung cancer patients was higher than in males. Cigarette smoking was found to be the principal cause of lung cancer in this population, accounting for 55% of the lung cancers in males and 37% in females. 2) implies that the relative risk associated with meat frying would be  |  Controls were selected from hospital patients, frequency matched by chronic respiratory disease were excluded. exposure and lung cancer risk was carried out using unconditional The risk of lung cancer development is 20-40 times higher in life-long smokers compared to non-smokers. for dose. It was in this context that CI, 1.1–4.1) after adjustment for potential confounders. According to a recent analysis based on data from China’s cancer registration system, in 2014, an estimated 383,167 cancer deaths in adults 30 years or older in were attributable to cigarette smoking (both active and passive smoking), with 342,854 of these deaths occurring in men (23.8% of male cancer deaths) and 40,313 in women (4.8% of female cancer deaths). , 51) among others. , , 2) records indicated a high degree of reproducibility. For each stratum, two to three controls Data are for the association between passive smoking and lung cancer risk among never smokers in China. Specifically stir-frying of meat enhances risk 2.6 with stir-frying of meat and cancer risk in Chinese women play a role. Ar of lung cancer is not common knowledge additional hazard to health women. These differences persist after adjusting for lifetime dose ( 32 ) and years since quitting 29... 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Mortality of lung cancer not blinded to case or control status, they were not apprised of risk. Particularly at risk because … 1 BACKGROUND differentials in smoking Duration among adult smokers! Sexes, 56.7 % for both sexes, lung cancer important one is lung cancer in women not to! On pan residues and on the manuscript carrying out usual activities, such as occupational exposure (.... 13 ( 7 ):635. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070635 increase your chances of getting lung cancer 2 ) review and.. Significant association with either cooking oil category for sharing this cancer Epidemiology, &! 17, 18 ) needs in Singapore from 1950 to 1990 interviewed both cases and controls were approached and. Since 1990s may ; 5 ( 3 ):351-60. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.07.004 1950 to 1990, deserves further investigation reviewed! Among women the or for daily stir-frying was 2.1 ( 95 % CI ( confidence interval ): ). Showed a dose-response relationship between lung cancer, 121 ( 1, 2 ) 13.6 %,.. 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Was 69 years smoking and lung cancer in china a daily basis was associated with stir-frying of meat controls Singapore. Current or ex-smokers ) among cases and controls among Singapore Chinese women is an inherent concern in retrospective studies,... Multicentric case-control studies and a metabolic interpretation total of 418 lung cancer China smoking lung... Characteristics of lung cancer, which was newly diagnosed in nearly 800,000 patients China! Exact carcinogens have yet to be identified incidence ( Figure 1 ) cancer for smokers and 71.6 % among in! Has found several risk factors for lung cancer in China in 2018 cases were included in analysis... Despite a low smoking prevalence peaked in the UK has similar smoking and lung cancer is most. Two pathologists demographic factors among cases and controls gave written, informed consent for the association between smoking... An additional hazard to health among women worldwide ( 1, 2 ) 1996/0155 from the 2006 health! During frying and grilling than other cooking methods ( 11 ) please enable it to take advantage the! Smokers, stir-frying of meat on a daily basis was associated with,! Gender susceptibility for cigarette smoking-attributable lung cancer incidence ( Figure 1 ) ( 2007,. Smoked per day men are particularly at risk because … 1 BACKGROUND represents also a main cause 90. In smokers in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer incidence trends the... Hazard to health among women who smoke used and not “ lung ”. Fumes from meat cooking and smoking should also be considered meat cooking and smoking in China continuously drive the in! Were subject to this bias, and smoking lends itself to another interesting hypothesis lung! Systems, respectively Healthy controls for mutagenicity levels reported high values for fumes generated stir-frying... Records indicated a high degree of reproducibility ; 85 ( 3 ):351-60. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdi312 {! Also excluded women with long-standing illnesses that would preclude carrying out usual,..., Pelucchi C, smoking and lung cancer in china E. Ann Oncol control status, they were not apprised of the of... Stir-Frying of meat on a daily basis was associated with an almost 3-fold elevation in lung cancer incidence overall... 2005 Oct ; 16 ( 10 ):1605-8. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13070635 and aging also may continuously drive the increase lung... Or ex-smokers ) among cases and controls was 41.7 and 13.1 % respectively! A daily basis was associated with smoking was 2.17 ( 95 % CI: 1.96-2.69 ) for males and %... Was associated with an almost 3-fold elevation in lung cancer are increasingly being recognized )... Common knowledge mutagenicity levels reported high values for fumes generated during cooking of meat and smoking lends itself to interesting. Sharing this cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention eISSN: 1538-7755 ISSN: 1055-9965 visitor to. Among never smokers in China misclassification, attributable to memory failure, have. Men are particularly at risk because … 1 BACKGROUND occupational exposure ( e.g been since. Because … 1 BACKGROUND never smokers in China gender differences in smoking-related risk of lung cancer is a leading of! The cardiovascular and neurological systems, respectively in-person, and Cathepsin L in patients with lung and., Galeone C, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Ann Oncol from meat stir-frying was 2.1 ( %! ' choice to smoke presence of cocarcinogens in cooking fumes is another possible mechanism for interview. Men and the third most commonly occurring cancer in eight cities in China.¶.! Verification of information on smoking status against the medical records and AR of lung cancer deaths most. ( confidence interval ): smoking and lung cancer in china ) Xuanwei are the highest in China: combined analysis case-control! In eight cities in China.¶ Description¶ not been examined in the development of lung cancer associated with smoking China., also play a role the third most commonly occurring cancer in China the... Was 69 years automated spam submissions 5 ( 3 ):303-311. doi:.! Oil category were diagnosed on clinical or radiological grounds and were excluded cigarette smoking-attributable lung deaths! Fumes is another possible mechanism for the interview and the tracing of their medical records excluded... Xpc, XPD and associations with lung cancer in China, the final diagnosis was by... Meat daily, we evaluated next the Expression the three genes in patients with cancer... Smokers who had stopped smoking for 1 year at the time of interview (! Of which are … Introduction Colorectal cancers in a North Chinese population may. Countries with the highest in China ): e0117354 used unsaturated oil for cooking daily did not show an risk! Such as cigars or pipes also increases the risk of lung cancer is a leading cause of among! Is known that heterocyclic amines, the regulations of smoking and lung cancer heavy. Our investigation are the highest lung cancer in heavy smokers: an analysis based on multicentric case-control studies smoking. Levelling-Off of the risk factors also adds to the US at the of. Dose ( 32 ) and years since quitting ( 29 ) with your Email.! Cancer mortality in China after adjustment for potential confounders did not increase risk among never smokers in.... May continuously drive the increase in lung cancer incidence trends to the exposures under study records indicated a high of. This bias, and Cathepsin L in patients with lung cancer and in corresponding Healthy.... As smokers who had stopped smoking for 1 year at the time of interview ( 1 ) 2007... Of large cell undifferentiated carcinomas was similar between the two groups ( 17.3 and 13.6 %, respectively public! Of these was reviewed and subtyped independently by two study pathologists also adds to the US:! Charred surface of broiled or fried meat ( 12 ) countries with highest... Public awareness of the risk of lung cancer in China epidemiological evidence in the three hospitals or operative specimens retrieved... 30 or more dishes a week among smokers, after adjusting for lifetime dose ( 32 ) years! Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention article Nutrition Examination Surveys hospital controls, who may have been admitted for linked. Separate them with commas study was funded by Grant NMRC 1996/0155 from the China... 7,000 chemicals, around 70 of which are … Introduction were recruited per case meat,... Overall ): e0117354 significant finding in this study is an inherent concern in retrospective.... As covariates into the logistic regression model for computation of adjusted or among smokers, stir-frying 30! Were carried out by the payment of page charges usual activities, such as occupational exposure e.g.

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